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Logical Electronic ==>

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Memory : Memory With Moving Parts

Memory : Read-Only Memory

Memory : Historical,Nonmechanical Memory Technologies

Memory : Modern Nonmechanical Memory

Memory : Digital Memory Terms And Concepts

Memory : Why Digital?

DIP Gate Packaging

Constructing The NOR Function

Constructing The OR Function

Constructing The NAND Function

Constructing The AND Function

Constructing The "Buffer" Function

Constructing The NOT Function

Tristate Buffer Gate

Special Output Gates

CMOS Bilateral Switch

Buffered And Unbuffered Gates

CMOS OR Gate

CMOS NOR Gate

CMOS AND Gate

CMOS NAND Gate

CMOS Gate Circuitry

Negative Binary Numbers

Binary Addition

Sequential Logic Devices

Boolean Algebra

Digital Computing

Up Down Counter Application

Synchronous Counters

Asynchronous Counters

Binary Count Sequence

Special Output Gates

TTL NOR And OR Gates

TTL NAND And AND Gates

The Negative-OR Gate

The Negative-AND Gate

The NOR Gate

Exclusive-NOR (XNOR) Gate

Switching Logic And Circuits

Hexadecimal Numbers System

Logic - Binary Functions

The Exclusive-OR ( XOR ) Gate

The NAND Gate

The NOT Gate

The OR Gate

The AND Gate

Digital Logic Electronic

47 topics total

Memory : Read-Only Memory

Memory : Historical,Nonmechanical Memory Technologies

Memory : Modern Nonmechanical Memory

Memory : Digital Memory Terms And Concepts

Memory : Why Digital?

DIP Gate Packaging

Constructing The NOR Function

Constructing The OR Function

Constructing The NAND Function

Constructing The AND Function

Constructing The "Buffer" Function

Constructing The NOT Function

Tristate Buffer Gate

Special Output Gates

CMOS Bilateral Switch

Buffered And Unbuffered Gates

CMOS OR Gate

CMOS NOR Gate

CMOS AND Gate

CMOS NAND Gate

CMOS Gate Circuitry

Negative Binary Numbers

Binary Addition

Sequential Logic Devices

Boolean Algebra

Digital Computing

Up Down Counter Application

Synchronous Counters

Asynchronous Counters

Binary Count Sequence

Special Output Gates

TTL NOR And OR Gates

TTL NAND And AND Gates

The Negative-OR Gate

The Negative-AND Gate

The NOR Gate

Exclusive-NOR (XNOR) Gate

Switching Logic And Circuits

Hexadecimal Numbers System

Logic - Binary Functions

The Exclusive-OR ( XOR ) Gate

The NAND Gate

The NOT Gate

The OR Gate

The AND Gate

Digital Logic Electronic

47 topics total

A *synchronous counter*, in contrast to an *asynchronous counter*, is one whose output bits change state simultaneously, with no ripple. The only way we can build such a counter circuit from J-K flip-flops is to connect all the clock inputs together, so that each and every flip-flop receives the exact same clock pulse at the exact same time:

Now, the question is, what do we do with the J and K inputs? We know that we still have to maintain the same divide-by-two frequency pattern in order to count in a binary sequence, and that this pattern is best achieved utilizing the "toggle" mode of the flip-flop, so the fact that the J and K inputs must both be (at times) "high" is clear. However, if we simply connect all the J and K inputs to the positive rail of the power supply as we did in the asynchronous circuit, this would clearly not work because all the flip-flops would toggle at the same time: with each and every clock pulse!

Let's examine the four-bit binary counting sequence again, and see if there are any other patterns that predict the toggling of a bit. Asynchronous counter circuit design is based on the fact that each bit toggle happens at the same time that the preceding bit toggles from a "high" to a "low" (from 1 to 0). Since we cannot clock the toggling of a bit based on the toggling of a previous bit in a synchronous counter circuit (to do so would create a ripple effect) we must find some other pattern in the counting sequence that can be used to trigger a bit toggle:

Examining the four-bit binary count sequence, another predictive pattern can be seen. Notice that just before a bit toggles, all preceding bits are "high:"

This pattern is also something we can exploit in designing a counter circuit. If we enable each J-K flip-flop to toggle based on whether or not all preceding flip-flop outputs (Q) are "high," we can obtain the same counting sequence as the asynchronous circuit without the ripple effect, since each flip-flop in this circuit will be clocked at exactly the same time:

The result is a four-bit *synchronous* "up" counter. Each of the higher-order flip-flops are made ready to toggle (both J and K inputs "high") if the Q outputs of all previous flip-flops are "high." Otherwise, the J and K inputs for that flip-flop will both be "low," placing it into the "latch" mode where it will maintain its present output state at the next clock pulse. Since the first (LSB) flip-flop needs to toggle at every clock pulse, its J and K inputs are connected to V_{cc} or V_{dd}, where they will be "high" all the time. The next flip-flop need only "recognize" that the first flip-flop's Q output is high to be made ready to toggle, so no AND gate is needed. However, the remaining flip-flops should be made ready to toggle only when *all* lower-order output bits are "high," thus the need for AND gates.

To make a synchronous "down" counter, we need to build the circuit to recognize the appropriate bit patterns predicting each toggle state while counting down. Not surprisingly, when we examine the four-bit binary count sequence, we see that all preceding bits are "low" prior to a toggle (following the sequence from bottom to top):

Since each J-K flip-flop comes equipped with a Q' output as well as a Q output, we can use the Q' outputs to enable the toggle mode on each succeeding flip-flop, being that each Q' will be "high" every time that the respective Q is "low:"

Taking this idea one step further, we can build a counter circuit with selectable between "up" and "down" count modes by having dual lines of AND gates detecting the appropriate bit conditions for an "up" and a "down" counting sequence, respectively, then use OR gates to combine the AND gate outputs to the J and K inputs of each succeeding flip-flop:

This circuit isn't as complex as it might first appear. The Up/Down control input line simply enables either the upper string or lower string of AND gates to pass the Q/Q' outputs to the succeeding stages of flip-flops. If the Up/Down control line is "high," the top AND gates become enabled, and the circuit functions exactly the same as the first ("up") synchronous counter circuit shown in this section. If the Up/Down control line is made "low," the bottom AND gates become enabled, and the circuit functions identically to the second ("down" counter) circuit shown in this section.

To illustrate, here is a diagram showing the circuit in the "up" counting mode (all disabled circuitry shown in grey rather than black):

Here, shown in the "down" counting mode, with the same grey coloring representing disabled circuitry:

Keywords : Synchronous, Counters

12 Oct 2006 Thr

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