Reading From The I/O Ports.

Reading from the I/O ports.

Up to now, we have been writing to Port A so that we can turn an LED on and off.  Now, we are going to look at how we can read the I/O pins on the ports.  This is so that we can connect an external circuit, and act on any outputs it gives.

If you recall from our previous tutorials, in order to set up the I/O ports, we had to switch from Bank 0 to Bank 1.  Let us do that first:

STATUS     equ             03h   ; Address of the STATUS register
TRISA        equ             85h  ; Address of the tristate register for port A
PORTA      equ              05h  ; Address of Port A
bsf            STATUS,5             ; Switch to Bank 1

Now, to set up the port to be an output, we sent a 0 to the TrisA register.  To set a pin on a port to be an input, we send a 1 to the TisA register.

movlw01h           ;Set the Port A pins
movwf TRISA         ;to input.
bcf STATUS,5      ;Switch back to Bank 0

Now we have set bit 0 of Port A to input.  What we need to do now is to check if the pin is high or low.  For this, we can use one of two instructions: BTFSC and BTFSS.

The BTFSC instruction means ‘Do a bit test on the register and bit we specify.  If it is a 0, then we skip the next instruction’.  BTFSS means ‘Do a bit test in the register and bit we specify.  If it is set to a 1, then we skip the next instruction.’ 

Which one we use, depends on how we want our program to react when we read the input.  For example, if we are simply waiting for the input to be a 1, then we could use the BTFSS instruction like this:

Code here
Goto  start
Carry  on here

The program will only move onto ‘Carry on here’ only if bit 0 on PortA is set to a 1.

Let us now write a program which will flash an LED at one speed, but if a switch is closed it will flash the LED twice as slow.  You can probably work this program out for yourself, but I have included the listing anyway.  You could try and write the whole program, just to see if you have grasped the concepts.  We are using the same circuit as before, with the addition of a switch connected RA0 of the PIC and the positive rail of our supply.

;*****Set up the Constants****

STATUS equ       03h                              ;Address of the STATUS register
TRISA equ       85h                              ;Address of the tristate register for port A
PORTA equ       05h                              ;Address of Port A
COUNT1 equ       08h                              ;First counter for our delay loops
COUNT2 equ       09h                              ;Second counter for our delay loops

;****Set up the port****

bsf STATUS,5 ;Switch to Bank 1
movlw 01h  ;Set the Port A pins:
movwf TRISA  ;bit 1to output, bit 0 to input.
bcf STATUS,5 ;Switch back to Bank 0

;****Turn the LED on****

    Start movlw 02h             ;Turn the LED on by first putting it
    movwf PORTA   ;into the w register and then on the port

;****Check if the switch is closed

BTFSC  PORTA,0             ;Get the value from PORT A
                                    ;BIT 0.  If it is a zero
call  Delay               ;a zero, carry on as normal.
                                    ;If is is a 1, then add an
                                    ;extra delay routine

 ;****Add a delay

call       Delay

;****Delay finished, now turn the LED off****

 movlw 00h  ;Turn the LED off by first putting it
 movwf PORTA  ;into the w register and then on the port

;****Check if the switch is still closed

 BTFSC PORTA,0         ;Get the value from PORT A
    ;BIT 0.  If it is a zero,
 call Delay  ;carry on as normal.
    ;If is a 1, then add an
    ;extra delay routine 

;****Add another delay****

 call Delay

;****Now go back to the start of the program

      goto Start  ;go back to Start and turn LED on again

;****Here is our Subroutine


Loop1  decfsz COUNT1,1 ;This second loop keeps the LED
 gotoLoop1  ;turned off long enough for us to
 decfsz COUNT2,1 ;see it turned off
 goto Loop1  ;

 ;****End of the program****

 end   ;Needed by some compilers, and also
   ;just in case we miss the goto instruction.

What I have done here is to turn the LED on.  I then check to see if the switch is closed.  If it is closed, then I make a call to our delay subroutine.  This gives us the same delay as before, but we are now calling it twice.  The same goes for when the LED is off.  If the switch is not closed, then we have our old on and off times.

You can compile and run this program.  However a word of warning.  The final circuit and code will look un-impressive to someone who is not interested in programming microcontrollers.  So, don’t be upset if, when you show your family and friends how you can change the speed of a flashing LED with a switch, they show very little interest – I am talking from personal experience, here!

If you have been following these tutorials from the start, then you may be interested to know that you have now learnt 10 of the 35 instructions for the PIC 16F84!  And all of these have been learnt just by simply turning an LED on and off.

Keywords : Pic, 16f84, Interrupt, Tutorial, Reading, I/O, Ports.
Writer : delon  |
19 Feb 2006 Mon   
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